How does nitrogen get in the streams of the Shenandoah Valley?
The water quality data compiled from this FOSR 2013 study in Clarke County, Virginia indicate that springs located near fields or areas where biosolids have been applied have higher Nitrate concentrations than those springs located in areas where biosolids have not been applied.
This study was conducted by Friends of the Shenandoah River with cooperation of Clarke County  and the willingness of landowners who gave access to the springs. Funds for the study were granted to Alison Teetor by the 2013 Citizen Water Quality Monitoring Grant Program , from the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and from the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Fund . Chemical analyses were conducted by Karen Andersen and Molly Smith. Ben Sawyer performed GIS measurements and helped with hydrologic analyses. John Young USGS Leetown, WV loaned a stream flow meter. Richard Marzolf helped write this report.